“When your watch gets out of order you have a choice of two things to do: throw it in the fire or take it to the watch-tinker. The former is the quickest.”-Mark Twain
The demand for the traditional watchmaker has changed over the years, but the skills needed are the same. First, let’s clarify the term “watchmaker”. A watchmaker does not actualy make watches, but is someone who is in the trade of repairing mechanical watches. With this in mind, it will be helpful to review some of the procedures and skills involved in watch repair before selecting someone to service or repair your watch.
To help understand what qualifies a person to repair watches let’s break down the skills needed:
- Familiarity with the theory of watch mechanics, and terminology.
- Understanding how to identify the watch in order to find parts,
- Finding the parts. (Being familiar with suppliers, networking, and indepentant suppliers)
- Owning the proper tools (a seemingly endless process)
- Possessing the manual dexterity & patience needed to completely dismantle, clean, inspect, reassemble, oil, and regulate (time) the watch.
- Make repairs to the case, bow, and stem assembly.
- Replace a balance staff using a watchmakers lathe.
- Make a judgment call to refer the repair if what is needed is beyond their skills.
This last point is very important. Anyone who repairs watches knows that there are many different types of watches, and very few can claim to be able to fix everything. But a modest craftsman will know ones limitations, and will be able to refer any repair job to someone who specializes in that particular repair, or simply turn down the repair job.
The following list would apply to someone who is able to provide services beyond basic cleaning and oiling of watches:
- Possess the ability to make very fine adjustments to a watch to obtain peak performance.
- Manufacture parts needed including balance staffs, flat springs flat parts such as set bridges.
- Repair broken pivots.
- Replace jewels, and make new jewels settings.
- Make new stems.
- Make positional adjustments to match (as close as possible) original factory specifications.
- Manipulate hairsprings (the very tiny springs that oscillate the balance wheel)
- Vibrate a new hairspring to an existing balance wheel
- Use methods and materials original to the time period of the watch
Some watchmakers have the skill to work on esoteric escapement types (such as duplex, verge), and other period specialties (a fusee watch for example). There are competent repairers that offer basic repair services, skilled craftsmen that have experience in all areas, and watchmakers that specialize in specific types or period watches. They all fill their niche in this disappearing trade. Certifications are offered to those who complete courses offered by the American Watchmakers-Clockmakers Institute (AWCI). A small number of Schools throughout the world offer certifications using the “Watchmakers of Switzerland Training and Educational Program” (WOSTEP). The National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors (NAWCC) offer workshops throughout the United States.
The drawback regarding formal education is that there are only a handful of these schools left now, and they can only accommodate a small number of graduates per year. Several modern mechanical watch companies such as Rolex offer schooling, but again they take in a very limited enrollment. Apprenticeship under a master watchmaker is an option but finding someone close who is willing to take that on is difficult. That means that many qualified watchmakers/repairers do not have a formal education (or apprenticeship), and have learnt their skills on there own.
So, how does one decide who is qualified work on your watch? A key factor is establishing a level of trust with the person that is servicing your watch. This is an especially important as it is often necessary to handle the repair of an antique timepiece via mail from a business whose storefront is a website. Here are some points that can help establish that trust:
- The phone number should be clearly identified on the website so one can easily speak directly with the person who will be working on your watch.
- Ensure that a warranty is offered on repairs
- The physical address should be listed on the website (not just an email).
There are other factors to be considered, but hopefully this information helps lay the groundwork needed to find a competent watchmaker.